What is pointers in Go?

What is pointers in Go?

Go: Pointers Explained

Go is a statically-typed language and one of the features that sets it apart from dynamically-typed languages is the use of pointers. Pointers are variables that store the memory addresses of other variables, allowing you to manipulate the value stored at that address. In this article, we'll explore what pointers are, how they work, and how they can be used in Go.

Understanding Memory Addresses

In order to understand pointers, it's important to first understand how memory addresses work. When a variable is declared in Go, it's stored in memory. Each memory location has a unique address, which is a numerical value that identifies its location. This address can be accessed and manipulated using pointers.

Declaring a Pointer

To declare a pointer in Go, you use the asterisk (*) operator. The asterisk tells Go that the variable you're declaring is a pointer and not a regular variable. For example:

var p *int

This declares a pointer p to an integer. Note that this only declares the pointer; it does not allocate memory for the variable it will be pointing to.

Assigning a Value to a Pointer

Once you have declared a pointer, you can assign a value to it using the & operator. The & operator returns the memory address of a variable. For example:

var num int = 42
var p *int = &num

This assigns the memory address of num to p, so p now points to num.

Accessing the Value Stored at a Memory Address

Once you have a pointer, you can access the value stored at the memory address it points to using the * operator. For example:

var num int = 42
var p *int = &num
fmt.Println(*p) // Output: 42

The Benefits of Using Pointers?

There are several benefits to using pointers in Go. One of the main benefits is that they allow you to manipulate the value stored at a memory address, which can lead to more efficient and flexible code. For example, you can use pointers to pass a large data structure by reference, instead of by value, which can be more memory-efficient. Additionally, pointers can be used to create dynamic data structures, such as linked lists, trees, and graphs.

When to Use Pointers in Go?

Pointers are a powerful tool, but they should be used with caution. Because pointers allow you to manipulate memory addresses directly, they can also introduce unexpected behavior, such as memory leaks or null pointer exceptions, if used incorrectly. It's important to carefully consider when and how to use pointers in your code, and to thoroughly test your code to ensure it's working as expected.


In conclusion, pointers are a powerful feature of Go that allow you to manipulate memory addresses and the values stored at those addresses. When used correctly, pointers can lead to more efficient and flexible code. However, it's important to understand how pointers work and to use them with caution to avoid unexpected behavior.